The diagnosis of infertility is made when conception doesn't occur after one year of trying to achieve pregnancy with unprotected intercourse. In general, 10 to 15 percent of infertility is due to failure of ovulation. Another common cause of infertility is blockage of the fallopian tubes. This may be caused by infection, inflammation, or scar tissue. Fortunately, with the advances in medical and surgical therapies, many causes of infertility can be diagnosed and treated. A complete evaluation of the female reproductive organs can offer many insights into possible barriers to fertility. Complaints of painful periods or pain with sex may be due to endometriosis (in-doe-mee-tree-OH-sis), pelvic infections, or adhesions from previous surgeries. The repair of fallopian tubes after ectopic (ek-TAHW-pick) pregnancy or infection can be performed laparoscopically (lap-uh-roh-SKAW-pick-lee). Treatment for poly-cystic (SIS-tick) ovaries, removal of ovarian cysts, and endometriosis can also be done with this procedure. Integrity of the uterus must be maintained to promote pregnancy. Hysteroscopy (his-ter-OSS-kah-pee) allows a panoramic view of the inside of the uterus to evaluate and treat polyps (pawl-ips), fibroids, and uterine myomas (MY-oh-muhs).